Papaya is one of our best local herbs for general health as well as an herbal food plant capable of helping with many ailments. A native of central america, it has spread famously worldwide and had already spread throughout south america by the time the Portuguese, “discovered’ it in Brazil. In the last few years numerous studies have been performed on papaya seeds, leaves, roots, fruits, and peel for a variety of imbalances, all with promising to amazing results. Being primarily of a sweet neutral nature, papaya tonifies qi, blood and yin, promoting digestion and moistening dryness in the lungs and digestive tract, giving protection to the lungs, relieving asthma and constipation. In traditional folk medicine it is also said to moisten and protect the liver (sour), heart (bitter) and kidneys (salt) as has been confirmed in scientific studies. The sweet flavour of the fruit is of the earth element in Chinese five elemental theory. It nourishes the spleen/pancreas function or the “digestive fire”. The earth element in a sense is the mother of all the elements being of the harvest season it nourishes and harmonizes all the other elements through its processing of food qi. Papaya is well known for the many beneficial effects that it has on digestion and it may be helpful to break some of those effects down according to flavours to aid us in understanding how to use it clinically. It has both a boosting effect on the qi, relieving bloating, while at the same time its yin and fluid building capabilities balance the excess heat that can sometimes result in the stomach from too many heating foods, cooling the acid reflux or ulcers that can result. The bitter flavour of the leaves, seeds and latex of the green fruit has the additional benefit of expelling damp in the spleen, lung and intestine helping diarrhea and clearing parasites in addition to having a strong downward action helping to relieve the vomiting that results from acute wind attacking the digestion.
The pungent flavour that we find in papaya guides to the metal element. Metal is the element that houses the organs lung and large intestine. In the five elemental cycle, the earth element sits ahead of the metal element in the nourishing cycle meaning that it is the mother of the metal element, therefore, it has a nourishing effect on the lungs and large intestine in addition to having a pungent flavour which guides to metal. Its positive effect on skin care using the peel is further evidence of its effect on metal and the lungs, the skin being ruled by the lungs according to Chinese medicine. The neutral energetic quality of it balances yin and yang in addition to building qi, yin, and fluids. The intense pungent flavour of the seeds reflect their highly effective action on parasitic activity in the digestive tract including amoebas, worms, bacteria (E.coli, S.aureus), and candida. Its blood tonifying and cooling effects are evidenced by its proven action on building the blood platelet count in patients with dengue, malaria, and chikengunya cooling the blood and preventing the dangerous haemorrhagic fevers of dengue and chikengunya.
Papaya has so many beneficial health effects that as I began to research further and increase my understanding of this wonderful plant friend of human kind, my mind was blown as to just how much information has recently been discovered. The studies on the preventative and anti-cancer effects of the aqueous extract and tea of the leaf is nothing short of incredible having a healing effect on the body in cases of all types of cancer. It also has been proven to work as a contraceptive for both men and women and now ranks as being one of the only known effective contraceptives for men. The list of known beneficial effects seems to grow endlessly before our eyes as more research and studies are done. I invite you to read on to see some of the things I have uncovered in my research and to add your own thoughts in the comment section regarding anything I have missed in this undoubtedly incomplete summary. Please leave your opinion on the flavours, actions, and your own personal experiences using papaya. We will include the comment section in the final specimen sheet on papaya in the herbarium available to all at Las Semillas School of Herbal Energetics.
An herbaceous tree, 2-10 m, the trunk about 20 cm DBH, narrowing to a crown of leaves. Stem suckers often develop but branching only when the terminal bud is damaged. The trunk contains soft fibrous wood. Bark; pale grey, smooth, well marked with leaf scars. Leaves up to 60 cm across, deeply palmately lobed, the hollow stalks to 60 cm long. Flowers: Male tree, abundant flowers on drooping stalks, cream-yellow, about 2 cm long , tubular, and fragrant; female tree larger, few flowers beside leaves, 5 thick waxy petals , cream, about 5 cm long, fragrant with prominent sticky stigma. (Sometimes male and female together on one tree). (Dioeciously). Fruits: fruits oblong to spherical , 7-50 cm long and 15 cm across, thin skin, green to orange. The sweet edible flesh bears many black seed on the inside leaving the centre hollow. Seed: Seeds in spherical to round, black and slightly rough when dry. The number of seeds per kg is approximately 20,000, collected from ripe fruit.
Herbs that tonify digestion, balance yin and yang, resolve mucous damp, relieve bloating, and clear parasites
Tonify qi, tonify and cool blood, balance yin and yang, moisten yin/fluids, cool yang, clear dampness, cool summer heat
Mild to Medium Strength Remedy. Minimal chronic toxicity
Chinese: Neutral, cooling
Ayurvedic: Tri-doshic, Neutral
Fruit: Pungent, Sweet, Bitter (according to liturature)
I personally find the fruit to have a bit slight sour quality. What do you think?
Seeds: Pungent, Bitter
Leaf: More bitter than pungent
Lung, Stomach, Large Intestine, Urogenital
Protein, fat, fibre, carbohydrates, minerals: calcium, phosphorous, iron, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and carotene, amino acids, citric and malic acids (green fruits), volatile compounds: linalool, benzylisothiocyanate, cis and trans 2, 6- dimethyl-3,6 epoxy-7 octen-2-ol, Alkaloid, α; carpaine, benzyl- β -D glucoside, 2- phenylethyl -β-D-glucoside, 4-hydroxy- phenyl-2 ethyl-β-D-glucoside and four isomeric malonated benzyl-β-D-glucosides.
Per 100 g, the leaves are reported to contain 74 calories, 77.5 g H2O 7.0 g. protein, 2.0g fat, 11.3 g total charbohydrate 1. 8 g fiber, 2.2 g ash, 344 mg Ca, 142 mg P, 0.8 mg Fe, 16 mg Na, 652 mg K, 11,565 beta-carotene equivalent, 0.09 mg thiamine, 0.48 mg riboflavin, 2.1 mg niacin, and 140 mg ascorbic acid, as well 136 mg vitamin E. Leaves contain the glycoside, carposide, and the alkaloid, carpaine. Fresh leaf latex contains 75% water, 4.5% caoutchouc-like substances, 7% pectinous matter and salts, 0.44% malic acid, 5.3 papain, 2.4% fat, and 2.9% resin.
“Some of Papaya Leaf's constituents include the fermenting agent myrosin, alkaloids, rutin, resin, tannins, carpaine, dehydrocarpaines, pseudocarpaine, flavonols, benzylglucosinolate, linalool, malic acid, methyl salicylate, another enzyme, chymopapain (latex and exudate), calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, beta-carotene, B-vitamins and vitamins A, C and E”.
Alkaloids: carpain, pseudocarpain and dehydrocarpaine I and II, choline, carposide,vitamin C and E
Proteolytic enzymes, papain and chemopapain, glutamine cyclotransferase, chymopapains A, B and C, peptidase A and B
Papaya contains several unique protein-digesting proteolytic enzymes including papain and chymopapain.
This enzyme is similar to pepsin, a digestive enzyme in our body.
A drug made from chymopapain used to be very popular in treating slipped disk.
Both papain and chymopapain can help lower inflammation and improve healing from burns.
The alkaloid, Carpaine, slows the heart rate in humans and thus reduces blood pressure. Its action is similar to the drug prescribed for heart patients, digitalis. The alkaloid is reported to be able to kill worms and amoebas.
Papaya has an abundance of cancer fighting lycopene. It is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of many important carotenoids, such as beta-carotene and xanthophylls.
Another useful compound not readily found in the plant kingdom is Fibrin. It reduces the risk of blood clots and improves the quality of blood cells, optimizing the ability of blood to flow through the circulatory system. Fibrin is also important in preventing stoke.
Functions and Indications
From the various reports published in scientific literature, it appears that C. papaya L. leaf extract does have beneficial properties in dengue. It has been shown to bring about a rapid increase in platelet count. This could be possibly attributed to its membrane-stabilizing property. The flavonoids and other phenols present in the extract have been suggested to provide the beneficial effects. One study found that the leaves of papaya plant are rich in several minerals. The researchers suggested that these minerals may balance the mineral deficiency caused by the virus and strengthen the immune cells against it.
If you or anyone you know has dengue or chikungunya or any illness which drastically reduces the blood platelet count of the patient, take one papaya leaf. It does not interfere with the medication. Wash it in plain water. Discard the stem and the hard central veins in the leaf. Cut the green leafy portion into small pieces and run it through a mixer or pound it to a paste. If it is too dry add a teaspoon of water, pound to a paste, squeeze the paste through a muslin cloth or a tea strainer. You will get about 2 tablespoons of nasty tasting green liquid. Make the patient drink it. I hear having it first thing is the morning is very effective. But those who have had it in the evening too say it works like a dream. The platelet count jumps within 3 hours. That’s the short version.
Dr. Valerian Mendonca
Tuesday dec 29 2015
The comparative efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (Maloxine) and leaf extracts of Mangifera indica (mango) and Carica papaya (paw-paw) was investigated in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Maloxine had the highest efficacy, reducing the parasite count from an average count of 9.4?0.04 to 1.4?0.05 after six days of treatment. The paw-paw leaf extract reduced the malaria parasite count from an average of 9.2?0.06 to 2.6?0.06; while the mango leaf extract showed an average reduction from 9.8?0.01 to 3.2?0.03 after six days of treatment. However, a combination of the two leaf extracts (1:1) exhibited a higher antimalaria efficacy than the separate leaf extracts, reducing he parasite count from 9.4?0.031 to 2.0?0.15. The public health implications of these findings are discussed.
Publisher: Bachudo Science Co. Ltd.
An extensive study on effects of Papaya on cancer and their findings, which were published on Tuesday, March 9, 2010 in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology conclude that Papaya Leaf Tea and Papaya Leaf Extract have “dramatic cancer-fighting properties against a broad range of tumors”.
Cancer fighting properties of Papaya leaf tea were attributed to increased production of key signaling molecules called Th1-type cytokines, which are known regulators of the immune system. Papaya extract helps to stimulate these Th1-type cytokines which in turn promote the ability of patient’s immunity to destroy cancerous cells. With proper boost, the immune system is able to fight various types of cancers without the need of harmful procedures such as chemotherapy or radiation. And since Papaya has no toxic effects on normal cells, its consumption goes without side effects.
University of Florida researcher Nam Dang, M.D., Ph.D., and colleagues in Japan have documented papaya's dramatic anticancer effect against a broad range of lab-grown tumors, including cancers of the cervix, breast, liver, lung and pancreas. The researchers used an extract made from dried papaya leaves, and the anticancer effects were stronger when cells received larger doses of the tea.
The seeds from papaya also contain a unique anthelmintic alkaloid called carpaine that has been shown to be very effective at killing parasitic worms and amoebas. There is much more detail on the human parasite problem and a great tasting smoothie treatment to get rid of them in using papaya seeds for parasites and intestinal worms.
The air dried papaya seeds given as elixir with honey has shown significant effect on the human intestinal parasites,without significant side effects. Benzylisothiocyanate, present in seeds is the chief or sole anthelmintic activity. The latex of papaya has anthelmintic efficacy against Heligmosomoides polygyrus in experimentally infected mice, which suggests its potential role as an anthelmintic against potent intestinal nematodes of mammalian host. It also has anthelmintic activity against natural infection of Ascaris suum in pigs and found to be 100% effective at the dose of 8g/kg body weight. The plant extracts of papaya possesses a dose dependent significant effect on the egg, infective larvae and adult worms of Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Alcoholic extracts of papaya shows potential in vitro anti- parasitic action, which affects eggs, infective larvae and adult Haemonchus contortus.(Krishna, Paridhavi et al, 2008)
Phytochemical and Pharmacological Investigation of Carica Papaya Leaf
Submitted y Mahmuda Bum ID NO: 2009-3-70-017
Department of Pharmacy Eastwest University Aftabnagar, Dhaka
The tropical fruit Carica papaya and its seeds have proven antihelminthic and anti-amoebic activities. To determine the effectiveness of air-dried C. papaya seeds on human intestinal parasitosis, 60 asymptomatic Nigerian children with stool microscopic evidence of intestinal parasites received immediate doses (20 mL) of either an elixir composed with air-dried C. papaya seeds and honey (CPH) or honey alone (placebo) in two randomized treatment groups. Repeat stool microscopic examinations were conducted 7 days postintervention for intestinal parasites. Significantly more subjects given CPH elixir than those given honey had their stools cleared of parasites [23 of 30 (76.7%) vs. five of 30 (16.7%); z = 4.40, P = .0000109]. There were no harmful effects. The stool clearance rate for the various types of parasites encountered was between 71.4% and 100% following CPH elixir treatment compared with 0-15.4% with honey. Thus, air-dried C. papaya seeds are efficacious in treating human intestinal parasites and without significant side effects. Their consumption offers a cheap, natural, harmless, readily available monotherapy and preventive strategy against intestinal parasitosis, especially in tropical communities. Further and large-scale intervention studies to compare C. papaya with standard antiparasitic preparation are desirous.
J Med Food. 2007 Mar;10(1):194-6
Okeniyi JA1, Ogunlesi TA, Oyelami OA, Adeyemi LA
Effectiveness of dried Carica papaya seeds against human intestinal
parasitosis: a pilot study.
In this study the aqueous extract of the papaya seeds was shown to have a significant anticandidal activity in vitro and in a mice model inoculated with C.albicans(in vivo) followed by the i.p of the aqueous extract of papaya indicating a strong antifungal activity. the extract gave a good effect on the reduction of the histomorphological changed in liver spleen and kidney.
The seed aqueous extract of papaya possesses significant in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity against Candida albicans and therefore it could be used in the treatment of C.albicans infection.
European Journal of Biology and Medical Science Research Vol.3, No.3, pp.33-45, June 2015 Published by European Centre for Research Training and Development (www.eajournals.org)
The flesh, seed and pulp of Carica papaya was shown by the agar-cup method to be bacteriostatic against several enteropathogens such as Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Ripe and unripe fruits (epicarp, endocarp and seeds) were extracted separately and all produced significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomomas aeruginosa and Shigella jlexneri. The extracts were much more active against Gram-positive than Gram-negative bacteria:’
From- Carica papaya juice, shoots and latex were used in Mayan herbal medicine..pdf
Results of this study revealed very significant antimicrobial activity with the extracts demonstrating broad spectrum of activity against both bacteria (S. pyogenes, E. coli, K. pneumonia, K. oxytocin, E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa, P. vulgaris and S. aureus) and fungi (A. flavus, T. metagrophytes and C. albicans). The organisms used in this study are associated with various forms of infections in humans. The bacteria are associated with infections of the upper respiratory tract (S. pyogenes), gastrointestinal infections, dysentery and urinary tract infections (E. coli), neonatal nosocomial infections (K. pneumonia), pulmonary tract infections (P. aeruginosa), focal lesions (P. vulgaris), and urinary tract infections (S. aureus). However, the fungi are associated with systemic mycosis and aflatoxin production (A. flavus), tinea barbae (T. metagrophytes) and candidiasis (C. albicans) . The demonstration of activity against all these organisms had shown that C. papaya can be used to produce raw materials/substances for further development of diverse antibiotics with broad spectrum of activity.
Comparative studies on antimicrobial properties of extracts of fresh and dried leaves of Carica papaya (L) on clinical bacterial and fungal isolates
1231 Okunola A. Alabi , Muyideen T. Haruna , Chinedu P. Anokwuru , Tomisin Jegede
111 Harrison Abia , Victor U. Okegbe and Babatunde E. Esan
Prevent Heart Attack or Stroke:
The folic acid found in papayas is needed for the conversion of homocysteine into amino acids such as cysteine or methionine. If unconverted, homocysteine can directly damage blood vessel walls, is considered a significant risk factor for a heart attack or stroke.
In wistar rats nephro-protective activity in the seeds was observed in dose related manner. Concentration of urine and creatinine were evaluated.
Liver Cirrhosis and Protection:
Various studies suggest that the traditional use of papaya leaf juice for liver cirrhosis as well as a general protection for liver is validated with the need for further studies indicated.
Papaya leaf tea protected against gastric ulcer in a study on laboratory animals published in the September 2008 issue of the "West Indian Medical Journal." In the study, papaya leaf extract reduced ulcer severity and showed strong antioxidant effects. Papaya leaf extract also decreased oxidized lipids and increased antioxidant activity within red blood cells. Researchers concluded from this preliminary study that papaya leaf tea shows potential for the treatment of gastric ulcer and oxidative stress on the stomach.
Papain has the ability to dissolve dead tissue without damaging living cells. An ointment, each 1 g containing 8.3 × 10 5 USP units papain and 100 mg of urea is available by prescription in the United States to deride necrotic tissue and liquefy slough in a variety of short- and long-term lesions, including pressure ulcers.
Chymopapain has also been used to aid in the healing and recovery of surgical wounds. A home treatment for pressure ulcers that involved soaking gauze in the “milk” that comes from the trunk or unripe fruit of the papaya plant and packing this into the pressure sore 3 times daily has been described.
Burns A, Lovich R, Maxwell J, Shapiro K. Where Women Have No Doctor: A Health Guide for Women . Berkeley, CA: Hesperian Books; 1997.
Use the peel of the papaya fruit for healing wounds. Doctors in the Philippines, Nigeria india and Jamaica have successfully used the papaya peel to heal wounds without causing secondary infection
Prevent Prostate Cancer:
Men consuming lycopene-rich fruits and vegetables such as papaya, tomatoes, apricots, pink grapefruit, watermelon, and guava were 82% less likely to have prostate cancer compared to those consuming the least lycopene-rich foods.
Aqueous root extract of papaya when given orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg to rats produces significant increase in urine output and shows similar profiles of urinary electrolyte excretion to that of Hydrochlorothiazide. (Krishna, Paridhavi et al, 2008)
Sharma and Mahanta have reported that the composite root extract containing papaya root extract as one of the constituent, induces morphological changes in the endometrial surface epithelium in albino rat uterus. The characteristic smooth regular pattern of normal epithelium appears to have changed at places by haphazardly oriented groups of cells and loss of microvill whereas seeds aqueous extract has shown abortifacient properties on female Sprague Dawley rats and the petroleum ether, alcoholic and aqueous extracts inhibits ovulation in rabbits. The papaya seed extracts did not exhibit anti-zygotic, anti-implantation, early abortifacient or antifertility activity. Normal consumption of ripe papaya during pregnancy may not pose any significant danger. However, the unripe or semi-ripe papaya (which contains high concentration of the latex that produces marked uterine contractions) could be unsafe in pregnancy). (Krishna, Paridhavi et al, 2008)
Male and Female contraceptive:
Antifertility activity: The antifertility effects of Carica papaya were investigated by feeding adult cycling and pregnant rats with different components of the fruit. No attempt was made to force-feed the animals and the results indicated that the unripe fruit interrupted the oestrus cycle and induced abortion. This effect decreased as the fruit became stale or ripe and exogenous progesterone partially counteracted this effect; the surviving foetuses were without distinct malformations. Adult male albino rats were administered 0.5 mg seed extract/kg body weight for 7 days and a significant reduction in total protein and sialic acid contents in both epididymal fluid and sperm pellet was observed. As compared with the control, lowered acid phosphatase activity was recorded in sperm pellet but higher levels in epididymal fluid after the treatment. The extract treatment also caused significant reduction in levels of inorganic phosphorus in the epididymal fluid.
The chloroform extract, benzene, methanol and ethyl acetate subfractions of the seeds were tested on sperm motility immediately after addition of the extracts and every 5 minutes thereafter for 30 minutes. Results showed that there was a dose-dependent spermicidal effect, showing an instant fall in sperm motility to less than 20%, and many of the spermatozoa became vibratory. Total inhibition of motility was observed within 20-25 minutes at all concentrations. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed deleterious changes in the plasma membrane of the head and mid-piece of the spermatozoa. Sperm viability tests and estimations of abnormal spermatozoa suggested that they were infertile. Effects were spermicidal rather than spermiostatic, as revealed by sperm revival test. Contraceptive effects of the benzene fraction were reported in male albino rats. Body weight, weight of testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate remained unaltered during the entire course of the investigation. Total suppression of cauda epididymal sperm motility coincided with a decrease in sperm count, viability and an increase in percentage of abnormal spermatozoa over 60-150 days. Minor changes in germ cell proliferation in the testis and vacuolisation and pyknotic nuclei in a few epithelial cells of the cauda epididymis were observed. Histology and biochemical composition of the testis and accessory sex organs, haematology and serum clinical biochemistry and serum testosterone levels remained unchanged throughout the course of the investigation. Tests also indicated mild oestrogenicity and monthly fertility tests revealed negative fertility. All altered parameters returned to normal levels 60 days following withdrawal of the treatment. These results suggested antifertility effects without undue adverse toxicity and that the effects may be directly rendered on the permatozoa.
Contraceptive efficacy, reversibility and toxicity of various fractions of the chloroform extract of the seeds were investigated in adult male rabbits at a dose regimen of 50 mg a day for 150 days of treatment. Body weight, semen analysis, haematology, serum clinical biochemistry and the fertility status of control and treated animals were evaluated in the study. The chloroform and ethyl acetate chromatographic fractions did not produce appreciable changes in these parameters; however, the benzene fraction resulted in uniform azoospermia after 15 days of treatment, which was maintained for the remainder of the ISO-day observation period. The levels of fructose, glycerophosphocholine, acid phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase in the seminal plasma were within the control range. Haematology and the serum clinical parameters showed no appreciable changes, indicating a lack of toxicity. The libido of the treated animals appeared to be normal although the fertility rate was zero. Normalcy of altered parameters was observed 60 days following withdrawal of treatment. It was concluded that this fraction of the seeds possesses reversible male contraceptive potential and the effects appear to be mediated through the testis.
In another experiment, a crude aqueous extract of Carica papaya seeds was studied on semen profile, fertility, body and organ weight response and toxicology, in male albino rats. Cauda epididymal sperm motility and count were reduced significantly at low and high dose regimens, for both oral and intramuscular administration. Reduced sperm motility was associated with morphological defects. Testicular sperm counts were also reduced in all treatment groups except for the low-dose intramuscular group. Fertility tests showed a dose- and duration-dependent reduction, with zero fertility observed at high-dose regimens. Testicular weight was reduced in all treatment groups, whereas accessory sex organs showed a variable effect. Body weight and toxicological observations did not reveal any untoward response and fertility and associated changes returned to normal within 40 days of treatment cessation. The antifertility effect of pawpaw seeds on the gonads of male albino rats was also demonstrated using an oral dose of 100 mglkg body weight administered orally for 8 weeks. A degeneration of the germinal epithelium and germ cells, a reduction in the number of Leydig cells and the presence of vacuoles in the tubules were observed.
Short-term administration of an aqueous extract of the seed manifested an androgen-deprived effect on the target organs and thereby caused the antifertility effect in adult male albino rats. The complete loss of fertility was attributed to a decline in sperm motility and alteration in morphology, as well as reduced contractile response of the vas deferens. The extract caused a slight alteration in the his to architecture and weight of the reproductive organs, mainly cauda and distal vas deferens. This appeared to be related to their greater androgen sensitivity in comparison to the other target organs or a diminished response to testosterone and its metabolites. Functional sterility was induced in male rats by the treatment, which shows potential as a male contraceptive.
An aqueous extract of Carica papaya seeds (S mg/kg/day 1M and 20 mg/kg/day PO) was investigated in male mice treated for 60 days. Reversibility studies were carried out to see if the effects were transient. The extract did not manifest oestrogenic effects in male mice and Lose studies indicated it to be non-toxic. Total body weight and weights of the reproductive organs, kidney and adrenal glands were not affected and serum SGOT, SGPT, protein and cholesterol levels remained within the normal range in the treated mice, suggesting that liver function and cholesterol and protein metabolism were not influenced by the extract.
The chloroform extract of the seeds has also been screened for hormonal properties using ovariectomised female rats to test for oestrogenicity, oestrogen-primed immature rats to test for progestogenicity and castrated adult male rats to test for androgenicity. The results revealed that the extract lacked progestogenic and androgenic effects, but did possess mild oestrogenic activity. An increase in weight of the vagina and uterus and presence of cornified epithelial cells in vaginal smears were observed, together with hypertrophy of the uterine epithelium, endometrium and stroma.
From- Carica papaya juice, shoots and latex were used in Mayan herbal medicine..pdf
The involvement of oxidative stress mechanisms in several biological and pathological processes including ageing, cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases has continued to fuel suggestions that processes can potentially be modulated by treatment with free-radical scavengers and antioxidant. The fermented papaya preparation has shown its ability to modulate oxidative DNA damage due to H2O2 in rat pheochromocytoma cells and protection of brain oxidative damage in hypertensive rats. It has also exhibited potential supportive role on oxidative inflammatory damage in cirrhosis caused by hepatitis C virus. The safety and antioxidative stress potential of papaya juice is found to be comparable to the standard antioxidant compound alpha tocopherol. The preparation containing yeast fermented papaya as one of the constituent has antioxidant actions and that it may be prophylactic food against age related and neurological diseases associated with free radicals.
Bacteriostatic activity of papaya could be correlated to its scavenging action on superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, which could be part of the cellular metabolism of such enteropathogens. Bio-catalyzer, which contains yeast fermented papaya, may be useful as health foods against neural lipid peroxidation, traumatic epilepsy and ageing. Consumptions of guava and papaya fruits reduce oxidative stress and alter lipid profile. Thus, it could reduce the risk of disease caused by free radical activities and high cholesterol in blood. (Krishna, Paridhavi et al, 2008)
Phytochemical and Pharmacological Investigation of Carica Papaya Leaf
Submitted y Mahmuda Bum ID NO: 2009-3-70-017
Department of Pharmacy Eastwest University Aftabnagar, Dhaka
The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (0.75 g and 1.5 g/100 mL) significantly decreased blood glucose levels (p<0.05) in diabetic rats. It also decreased cholesterol, triacylglycerol and amino-transferases blood levels. Low plasma insulin levels did not change after treatment in diabetic rats, but they significantly increased in non-diabetic animals. Pancreatic islet cells were normal in non-diabetic treated animals, whereas in diabetic treated rats, C. papaya could help islet regeneration manifested as preservation of cell size. In the liver of diabetic treated rats, C. papaya prevented hepatocyte disruption, as well as accumulation of glycogen and lipids. Finally, an antioxidant effect of C. papaya extract was also detected in diabetic rats.
This study showed that the aqueous extract of C. papaya exerted a hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect; it also improved the lipid profile in diabetic rats. In addition, the leaf extract positively affected integrity and function of both liver and pancreas
Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Isela Esther Juárez-Rojop
BMC Complementary and Alternative MedicineThe official journal of the International Society for Complementary Medicine Research (ISCMR)201212:236
28 November 2012
Seeds are More Potent
The papaya seeds are very pungent and peppery, making them almost unpalatable. However the seeds seem to have more potent medicinal values than the flesh.
• Papaya seeds have antibacterial properties and are effective against E.coli, Salmonella and Staphylococcus infections.
• Papaya seeds may protect the kidneys from toxin- induced kidney failure.
• Papaya seeds can eliminate intestinal parasites.
• Papaya seeds help detoxify the liver
•As a skin irritant to lower fever
• Cure for piles and typhoid
• anti-helminthic and anti-amoebic properties
•Possibly unsafe. A 1978 report suggested that papain was teratogenic and embryotoxic in rats.
Singh S, Devi S. Teratogenic and embryotoxic effects of papain in rat. Indian J Med Res . 1978;67:499-510.
•Several studies have investigated whether papaya consumption is safe during pregnancy. Rats given a ripe papaya blend in place of water showed no difference in the number of implantation sites and viable fetuses. However, unripe or semi-ripe papaya, which contains a higher concentration of latex, could be unsafe during pregnancy.
Cherian T. Effect of papaya latex extract on gravid and non-gravid rat uterine preparations in vitro. J Ethnopharmacol . 2000;70(3):205-212.
•The crude papaya latex induced spasmodic contraction of the uterine muscles
similar to oxytocin and prostaglandin F2-alpha.
Adebiyi A, Adaikan PG, Prasad RN. Papaya ( Carica papaya ) consumption is unsafe in pregnancy: fact or fable? Scientific evaluation of a common belief in some parts of Asia using a rat model. Br J Nutr . 2002;88(2):199-203.
•No adverse effects on prenatal development were observed in female Sprague-Dawley rats administered a low-dose, crude, aqueous extract of papaya seeds.
Oderinde O, Noronha C, Oremosu A, Kusemiju T, Okanlowan OA. Abortifacient properties of aqueous extract of Carica papaya (Linn) seeds on female Sprague-Dawley rats. Niger Postgrad Med J . 2002;9(2):95-98.
Allergies to papaya:
People with allergies to papaya or papain should not consume papaya.
In my 15 year experience treating hundreds of clients, the papaya seed smoothie recipe works 9x’s out of 10 to knock out any of the San Marcos parasites. It is a cheap and delicious way to go.
30 papaya seeds, a small piece of papaya, 1 banana, 1 0z pure water blend until the seeds are well powdered
Drink 1-3 times a day until all symptoms are gone.
Also papaya leaf tea, not as delicious, works well for diarrhea generally. It is not as strong but also effective.
With a mortar and pestle smash up a few young leaves of the papaya, squeeze the pulp through a cloth until you have 1-2 tablespoons. Drink the bitter juice once a day. Add honey if preferred.
Papaya leaf tea of the young leaves dried or fresh. Boil 1-3 leaves for 5-10 minutes and let sit for 10 minutes. Drink 3 times a week to prevent cancer. The higher the dose the greater the efficacy for existing cancers.
Lay a piece of the peel on the area for 20 minutes a day
Rub the area with the peel or juice.
Eat 1 tablespoon of the seeds daily for 60 days after which sterility begins, then maintain 1 tablespoon a day to stay sterile, when one wants the sperm count to rise again, stop eating the seeds and wait 60 days.
Fresh or Green fruit
Eat the fresh fruit to cure constipation, hemorrhoids, acid reflux, mouth ulcers, asthma, irregular digestion, and protect the lungs, liver, heart and kidneys.
Drink soup of the green papaya with fish to increase milk flow of lactating mothers.